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     TejasTejas Coach Works . . .    Located in north central Texas just 50 miles west of Fort Worth!

    Appointments will be Required for any visits! We are not taking on any new projects currently.
    Tejas Coach Works is liquidating all assets from the last 40 years. Please refer to our Facebook page for inquiries,

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    For all those still interested in the tips and tricks and knowledge base on this website, we will keep the information available for the foreseeable future, and Tejascoach.com will stay as a website, but the mission may change to other vehicles as opposed to buses.

    Appointment will be Required for any Work!
    The Grand Kids get first Choice!
    Currently Back Logged to the End of October!




    Special Bulletin! 09/08/09

    Is the Oil Pressure in your Turbo Engine TOO LOW??

    Engines that are turbo charged absorb a hefty percentage of the oil to lubricate the turbo.
    I have seen some that will not maintain 30 to 35 psi at max rpm after warm up.

    Delo 100 is also available in 50 WT. It will give a tired engine some more compression and bring up the Oil Pressure. The heavier viscosity oil will boost the oil pressure and at the same time it could increase your compression in turn helping the engine run cooler and possibly smoke a little less.

    This is not as good as an overhaul by any means, but It is a way to extend the life of an old engine, especially if you do not have the big bucks it takes today to overhaul. I stumbled on to this talking to a West Coast operator who indicated he had been using it for years and he was getting it from an Authorized Genuine Detroit Dealer. I have not attempted to purchase it through the Dealers, but did find some locally at an independent oil distributor.

    NOTE 1: If your engine is maintaining 60 psi at 70 mph and 15 to 20 psi at idle with a warmed up engine, you do not need this weight oil!

    NOTE 2: If you have a non turbo engine that has low oil pressure this will also work in it.

    Technical Data Section: - Tejas Oil & Tips

    This page upgraded & Reconfigured to be more user friendly 06-07-06

    This page Updated 09-05-06 with new FUEL TIPS added - rev.1 09/13/06
    Sulfated Ash Rate Comparison Chart Updated 08/30/06
    Frequently Asked Questions Section
    has been added below and will be updated as time allows

    Tejas Coach Works Oil Recommendations for Detroit Diesel 2-Cycle Engines

    To view other pages in the Technical Library, such as the Detroit Diesel Publication, scroll to the bottom of this page, click the Navigation Bar for your choice

    NOTE: COPYRIGHT 2006 Tejas Coach Works
    This information is open for anyone to read, but is not intended to be copied.
    Instead, please feel free to invite others to view it
    here at tejascoach.com.
                             Thanks


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    Oil Recommendation - Tejas

    Chevron's Delo® 100 in the straight 40 WT. is the better of Chevron's Delo® oils for the Detroit Diesel® 2 Stroke family of engines. The Delo® 400 is better suited for the 4 cycle diesel engines.
    Shell's Rotella 40T® meets the specifications for the 2 Stroke Detroit Diesel® also.

    Special Bulletin!

    Re:

    Scarcity of Availability of Straight
    40 WT. Oils
    Delo® 100 40 wt & Rotella 40T® both are now available at the O’Reilly Auto Parts Store. Click here to access store locator O’Reilly. You do NOT NEED to have a USER NAME or a PASSWORD to use the LOCATOR, just type in your zip code and the closest store will be listed at the top of the list along with street address, phone number and a CLICK ABLE local MAP to assist you in arriving at their location. If the parts person does not know the info required to access these products, ask them to enter the following information into the counter top parts computer.
    For Delo® 100 40 wt, in the ITEM NUMBER, enter 100-40-1, in the LINE CODE, enter CHV
    For Rotella 40T®,      in the ITEM NUMBER, enter T40-1,      in the LINE CODE, enter SHE

    IF the product is not in stock, IN MOST CASES they can order it in from their HUB for next day availability.


    Chevron® or Shell® If you do not have an O’Reilly Auto Parts Store available and want to locate an oil Distributor,
    CLICK on your preference below
    Chevron Delo® Distributor Locator and select the state you are in
    or go to the Shell Oil site located at
    Shell® Rotella Distributor Locator and enter your zip code to locate the nearest one to you.

    If they will not let you purchase direct from them, ask them to give you a list of their agents so you can contact one of them to have them purchase it for you. You probably will have to expect to order more that just one case (6 gallons) to get them interested. My local distributor normally will order one case of any particular item I need, but this is a small community.


    NOTE: The following is from my personal experiences while operating a small 7 bus charter company over a 17 year period.

    Back in 1983 when I was just beginning to operate a charter company I had a 1966 MC5A with a fresh majored 8V71 engine which was using 1 gallon of Delo® 100 oil every 2300 miles. I switched to the Delo® 400 for a year and had convinced a larger charter operator to do the same. After 1 year I noticed that my oil consumption rate had increased from the 1 gallon per 2300 miles to a 1 gallon per every 1200 miles. The other operator was experiencing similar performance.

    WHICH DELO®??:
    I contacted Detroit Diesel® technical support department back around in 1985. This was before Roger Penski purchased the company. I specifically asked the technician I talked to which of the two Delo® oils (100 or 400) was best suited for the Detroit Diesel® 2 Stroke engine. He advised me that he was not allowed to make any recommendations which might imply one oil manufacturer's oil was superior to another. He did state that the ash content of the Delo® 100 was 0.85% (note it is currently lower at .76%) and that the Delo® 400 was 0.96% (note it is currently out of spec at 1.35%) and that both products meet the spec for the 2 stroke engine. I presented the question to him again pointing out that since both products were produced by the same manufacturer, which one came the closest to Detroit Diesel's requirement. He then advised that the one with the 0.85% (Delo 100) was the closest to the 2 stroke. I then asked him what did that mean in Layman's terms. The response was "It will consume less oil if you use the one with 0.85% "(although he did not state Delo 100, that is the one that has the 0.85% ash content.

    At this point the other charter operator and I both returned to the use of the Delo 100 oil and my oil consumption returned back to the 1 gallon per 2300 mile rate and the other operator gained similar results.

    Sulfated
    Ash Rate

    Comparison
    Chart


    Updated 08/30/06
    Chevron Delo 100           40 WT              = 0.76    (24% BELOW benchmark)

    Exxon XD-3                     40 WT              = 0.80

    Citgo Mystik Premium
    Fleet Engine Oil              40 WT              = 0.90      (Citgo is owned by Venezuela)

    Shell Rotella 40T            40 WT              = 1.00    (Shell Rotella 40T is borderline)

    Delo 400                          40 WT              = 1.35    (35% OUT of TOLERANCE)

    OIL VISCOSITY:
    I used to think that 40 Wt was only for hot months and that we should cut back to 30 Wt during the cold months. I have a good friend who retired from the R&D department at Detroit who set me straight on that logic. He sent me a Detroit Diesel publication that had photographic evidence showing the damage done to the 2 cycle engine when anything other than STRAIGHT 40 wt. oil is used. When either using 30 wt. or a multiple viscosity oil such as 15w 40 the cylinder liner shows unacceptable scuffing and wear during a 100 hour accelerated test whereas using the straight 40 wt. oil a photo with the same 100 hour accelerated test still looks new with the factory's hone marks without any wear. Read the entire Detroit Diesel® by clicking this link DDC Oil



    NOTE: COPYRIGHT 2006 Tejas Coach Works
    This information is open for anyone to read, but is not intended to be copied.
    Instead, please feel free to invite others to view it
    here at tejascoach.com.
                             Thanks



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    Oil Classification

    NOTE: There was a "typo" in the following copy. The Classification: CD-II, was typed as "CD-11", which I understand is an OBSOLETE Rating. The new API Classification is API CF, CE, CF-2, and SH (can also support older/ obsolete API classification: CD, CD-II)

    OIL CLASSIFICATION:
    Any brand straight 40 wt. oil that has the spec for the Detroit Diesel engine ( SAE Viscosity Grade: 40-API Classification: CD-II, (which is an obsolete designation replaced by the current API Rating CF-2), Military Spec.: Mil-L-2104D, Sulfated Ash: Less than 1.0% under normal temperature conditions, each oil container has the information printed on it) should work acceptable but I have found after 18 years that my choice is for Delo 100 40 wt.  which is becoming very difficult to find (as is ANY brand of straight 40 wt. oil) unless you go direct to an oil distributor and have him order for you. My suggestion is to make friends with your local distributor and if you must have him special order it, it comes in a case of 6 one gallon containers. It will take 7 or more gallons, depending on which engine and or coach you are changing oil in, so you will need to purchase 2 cases, I would always carry at least 2 cases with me on any trip, just in case you have to change oil during the trip. (Murphy's law, if it can it will . . . or has) One never knows when a fuel cross over line will start leaking and dilute your oil and ruin an engine while out on a long trip.
    Oil Check Tips Back To Top 

    Tips on Checking your oil level

    OIL LEVEL CHECK:
    The correct way to check the oil is to shut off the engine with the bus sitting on a level spot. Let it sit for a couple of hours and drain all back into the oil pan, then check it. If you check it after just shutting the engine off it will check about 1 qt.. low up to about 15 minutes or so. (Depends on the temperature of the engine oil, the hotter the faster it will flow back.) If the vehicle is not level use common sense and if the nose is high, the oil will show over what it really is. If the nose is low the oil will show lower than what it really is. If the left side is lower than the right side it will read lower and visa versa.  The best time to check the oil is just before you start it while it is level. After you start it you can test the level and you will find that it will show approximately 1 gallon low while running if it was at the full mark before you started it.

    Tips on Oil level procedures

    OIL LEVEL:
    Back 30 years ago while working for a large contractor that ran several pieces of equipment which all utilized the 2 stroke Detroit Diesel engines, it was a practice to run the oil 1 gallon low, since when it was full it seemed to smoke and leak more until it got down to the 1 gallon low mark. It might take 2 hours to use the first gallon and then not use another gallon for the next 4 hours. We had not heard of the EPA, nor were any of the famous DOT boys out looking at all the oil dripping, oil was cheap but we didn't like stepping in it so we just ran equipment and trucks 1 gallon low. Much smarter now, I have learned that although it may leak less and smoke less, it also runs hotter when running low on oil. Plus, if you start off running 1 gallon low and then drive it until it uses an additional gallon, you will then be 2 gallons low, which when making a sharp turn or going up or down a steep incline or hill, you increase the possibility of sucking air instead of oil out of the oil pan. This will result in rapid and premature wear on all moving components, lack of cooling to the pistons, and galling of the cylinder walls and pistons.

    DIP STICK:
    It is a good thing to check your dip stick just after an oil change after you have installed the correct amount of oil that the bus manufacturer recommends to confirm that the dip stick has the correct markings on it. It is not unusual to find that the dip stick has been replaced with the wrong one or is poorly marked. Install the correct amount of oil to include that which is in the filter, start the engine let it run until it reaches 180 degrees, shut if off and wait at least 2 hours (Overnight would be even better if you have the time) This is being picky, but, I have dropped the pan off of many engines and returned the next day, slid under the engine only to have a drop of oil hit me in the face or in the ear and continue to do so regularly during the entire time I was under it.


    NOTE: COPYRIGHT 2006 Tejas Coach Works
    This information is open for anyone to read, but is not intended to be copied.
    Instead, please feel free to invite others to view it
    here at tejascoach.com.
                             Thanks




    Tejas Oil Oil
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    Tips for Hot Weather Operation

    HOT WEATHER OPERATION:
    When preparing to travel through some extremely hot desert country I even will add up to 1 additional gallon of oil which will help keep the internal parts of the engine cooler. More oil will adsorb more heat from the engine and in turn dissipate the heat when it returns back to the pan, LESS oil will absorb LESS heat. CAUTION: I would NOT add anymore than 1 gallon above the full mark with the engine shut off.  I may get some negative comments on this procedure, but I have found it to work over the years. (REFER back up to the OIL LEVEL CHECK paragraph where if you check it running you will notice that it will show 1 gallon low, there is room at this point to add the additional gallon which will not be high enough to come in contact with the moving crankshaft parts to cause it to whip the oil into foam.

    After clearing the hot country or after shutting the engine down, if it is still over full, it probably will leak out of anywhere you might have loose parts or bad gaskets. A small price to pay for keeping your engine cooler and as any operator of a 2 stroke Detroit Diesel knows, it won't be long until the level will be back to the normal level. (Unless you are one of those whose Detroit Doesn't Leak People, which is a very Rare People)

    If you have to shut down your engine due to overheating, you can safely add 1 gallon of extra oil which would be cooler than the oil in the hot engine which will assist in bringing the temperature back down sooner. You should not attempt to add any water to a non running overheated engine as it will crack the heads if they were not already cracked when it overheated AND if you open the radiator cap on a hot engine you can receive 1st, 2nd and possibly 3rd degree burns. If your cooling system is holding pressure it will raise the boiling point 3 degrees for every 1 psi of pressure you can hold on it. Most systems are set to hold at least 7 psi, which will raise the level of boiling from 212 up to 233 degrees. What this means is that no steam is inside the water jackets until it exceeds the 233 degree mark. The damage from heat is caused by the cavitating of the air in the steam in the water jacket which separates the water from contacting the metal and drawing the heat away from that area and transporting it to the radiator to dump the heat outside of the engine. You can also dump a massive amount of heat simply by turning on the coach heater to full hot, turning off the engine driven air conditioner and drop the transmission into a lower gear which will increase the rpm and remove stress from the engine, causing it to run cooler.


    NOTE: COPYRIGHT 2006 Tejas Coach Works
    This information is open for anyone to read, but is not intended to be copied.
    Instead, please feel free to invite others to view it
    here at tejascoach.com.
                             Thanks




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    Tips for Cold Weather Operation

    COLD WEATHER STARTING:
    One should have an engine block heater installed and maybe even an oil pan oil heater. The easiest oil heater to use is the dip stick type which you just stick in the dip stick location. There are pan heaters that are magnetized and attach to the oil pan, but sometimes these will crystallize the pan and it will crack and start leaking. The engine block water heater should be plugged in at least 8 hours prior to crank and the oil heater should be turned on at least 3 to 4 hours prior although you can leave them on for much longer, even days at a time. Make sure fluids (Engine coolant and oil) are in the proper places before turning them on or they will burn out very quickly if not emerged (does not apply to the external magnet attached heaters).

    In an emergency situation, I always threw in a bag of Charcoal, an old metal bucket and a gallon of Bleach and a roll of paper towels just in case I needed to warm the engine and did not have an electrical source to warm the engine with.

    CAUTION: WAIT until the charcoal starter fluid is burned off and the coals start glowing good and NO flame is visible. Then slide the bucket under the oil pan and wait a couple of hours.

    CAUTION: Do NOT burn the charcoal inside the bus or in a closed garage as it will Asphyxiate you. And do not ignite it near gasoline or even near empty gasoline containers that are open or closed. A tarp or pieces of cardboard to block the wind around the engine will also help.

    AND WHAT IS THE BLEACH FOR? You can use the bleach to pour around the tires and make a short trail in the ice and snow to get traction if it gets too slippery to untrack the vehicle.

    AND WHAT ABOUT THE ROLL OF PAPER TOWELS? When your windshield fogs over, instead of ripping off 1, 2, 3 or 4 sheets, you can use the roll of paper towels to wipe a 12" path side to side like an inside windshield wiper blade. If you grasp it at the end it will extend your reach almost an additional foot to reach into the far corners. And when it gets a little damp simply rotate the roll to a dry spot. It will dry out for the next de-fogging later.

    WAIT . . . DON'T THROW AWAY THE TUBE . . . the one that is inside of the paper towels. It is real handy to use when adding oil to the engine. It is a extension to the 1 gallon oil jug. The neck of the oil jug fits just inside the cardboard tube effectively extending and making it a long neck jug. The extension tube fits just inside the oil filler tube and you don't have to spill it or hunt up a funnel, make sure it is clean from dirt or what ever and then afterwards mess with a dripping funnel after servicing the engine. If you want to save them in advance and make sure they are clean you can also take an old bread wrapper, turn it inside out (to get rid of the crumbs) and store the tubes inside the old bread wrapper.
     


    NOTE: COPYRIGHT 2006 Tejas Coach Works
    This information is open for anyone to read, but is not intended to be copied.
    Instead, please feel free to invite others to view it
    here at tejascoach.com.
                             Thanks




    Tejas Oil Oil
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    Tips about Fuel revised 09/13/06

    FUEL:
    Is there a best time to refuel you vehicle.

    Originally I did not think it made much difference as to when one should refuel.

    BUT there are several things to consider, besides the price of it.

    Number One is that you should try to have the tank full before turning off the engine after a trip and ALWAYS keep the tanks FULL when it is not in use. When the engine is running it is circulating the fuel through the fuel galleys in the heads at a pressure above 65 psi and the excess fuel will return back to the tank via the return line. While the fuel is traveling inside the head it passes right by the exhaust valves, effectively cooling the head AND at the same time transfers the heat back to the tank. That area is one of the hottest internal areas (excluding the Hot side of the Turbo) of the engine. The fuel will rise to a temperature much greater than ambient temperature in the fuel tank. Even if you are running on a day with 110 degrees, the fuel in the tank will be above 130 degrees and the result will be that IF the tank is not FULL, the space at the top of the tank will react similar to that of the atmosphere and the cooler sides of the metal tank with the hotter fuel inside will cause the inside of the tank to sweat. The greater the space the greater the sweat, which will reside at the bottom of the tank.

    The next problem is that while the water in its self can cause major problems, the next step will cause much more problems if the water remains in the tank for a while. Algae will begin to grow and a black slim will start forming in the tank. There are additives that one can add to the fuel to kill the algae, but then you will have to battle the engine becoming sluggish until the fuel filers are changed, and depending on the degree of contamination, the changing of the fuel filters may require several before the algae is totaly removed from the system. I have heard of some having to change the filters multiple times in short distances.

    The best solution is to keep the tanks topped off.

    Another interesting factor affecting the BEST TIME to refuel is what time of the day is it. At one time in the past I knew of a small independent fuel Distributor that shared with me the following situation. His storage tanks were in the 50,000 gallon range and he said that over period of a year, he gained approximately 200 gallons of free fuel. He would always try to deliver fuel during the latter part of the day after the tanks were warmed, and schedule his replacement fuel to arrive early in the day from cooler tanks. In other words the fuel was metered to him as cool fuel. He would deliver it as warm fuel that was expanded in volume. Granted, this would be much more agitated with elevated tanks exposed to the sun, but could be a factor in buried tanks, unless the tops of the tanks were at least 15 feet below the surface where the temperature stays approx 68 degrees year round unless your live in Siberia or the Mohave desert where the frost line will be at a greater depth.

    This probably would not affect a 100 gallon purchase very much, but is something to think about especially during these times of CHEAP?? fuel.

    When would be a BAD time to purchase fuel?

    During and several hours after a Fuel DELIVERY has been made.

    The delivery of the fuel will churn up any water (Yes the stations have to deal with it also) or sediment dirt or other foreign matter that may be residing in the storage tanks at the station.

    Additives to fuel

    There are numerous additives that one can put in fuel to modify its behaviour. Some may be good, some may not change any thing, others may harm your engine. Back when they first lowered the sulfur in fuel to address the emissions issues, their was a great concern about the lack of lubricity in the diesel and we added plain ATF in the rate of about 1 pt per 100 gallons to keep additional lubricants in the fuel. (I personally used Automatic Transmission Fluid TYPE "F" since I was not too sure what affect MICRONS in the Dextron version would do to the Detroit injectors, which had very close tolerance.) There is a Fuel Additive manufacture close to here that can be found at almost any truck stop that the composition of the additive is very close to ATF.

     

    NOTE: COPYRIGHT 2006 Tejas Coach Works
    This information is open for anyone to read, but is not intended to be copied.
    Instead, please feel free to invite others to view it
    here at tejascoach.com.
                             Thanks



    Tejas Oil Oil
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    Driving Tips

    (Under construction, the following is raw input, un edited and may contain some info that needs to be corrected but should be relatively accurate) posted (11/28/05) rev 1 (11/29/05) rev 2 (12/06/05) rev 3 (12/08/05)



    Tips for Driving the 2 Stroke Detroit Diesel Engine

    The most common error made by both seasoned and rookie drivers that can eventually ruin your engine, cost you thousands of dollars or just make you late to your next appointment!!!

    After talking to many folks over the years and repeating the following information I fell it is past due time to make this information available for easier access.

    The Detroit Diesel 2 stroke family of engines are a very lasting and enduring breed. (They have been around since the 30's) There is an old saying that if you baby your engine it will last longer, except if it is a Detroit 2 Stroke, also referred to in the past as a "Screaming Jimmy". If you baby one of these engines you will end up "Lugging" it and causing it to look like the photos illustrated in the DDC Oil section of this web site. See DDC OIL Some of you will have been told the technique by Old Drivers that when driving a Jimmy you should start out the day by placing your hand on a bench and take a hammer and smash your thumb, then take your anger out on the engine because you caint(sp) hurt it by driving it hard!! Another version was as you are climbing into the cab, just slam the door on you finger, then take it out on the Jimmy.

    Lugging
    Lugging is when one asks the engine to go faster that is has the capability to do in the given condition that one asks it to. Such as starting to climb a mountain, or climb a hill, or just climb any slight grade and the engine will not accelerate beyond the speed you are attempting to maintain. The situation is that you are in too high of a gear for your present condition. This could be caused by trying to pull too heavy of a load, having too high of a head wind, engine getting too old to pull what it used to, clogged up fuel filters, clogged up air filter, loss of turbo boost due to leaking boost pressure, brakes dragging or park brake not released completely, flat tires, and on and on.

    At engine temperatures below 186 degrees the piston is smaller at the top than it is at the bottom. At 186 degrees, the piston is the same size at the top and the bottom, this condition is altered by the crown of the piston which gets all the heat from the burning of the fuel.

    Lugging creates heat in the engine which in turn will heat the oil and thin it causing oil pressure to decrease and at a point it will not have sufficient pressure to flow through the crankshaft up an oil galley inside the connecting rod into the wrist pin boss to lubricate the pin and then exit out the top of the connecting rod via the spray nozzle spraying and cooling the underside of the piston crown. At a point the lugging will cause the crown of the piston to become larger than the cylinder liner. There are times when this may not be evident via the water temperature gauges until they start to climb. If the temperature is a result of lugging, the piston crowns beat the water in the race to get hot.

    With that said, there are limitations that one should know and understand where this "hard driving" does not apply! After you attain the highway speed that you are comfortable with or after you have attained the fastest speed the coach can reach, then you should back off the pressure on the accelerator pedal to a point approximately 1" off the floor board. When you do this the engine should maintain the same speed you were doing prior to releasing the pressure from the pedal. You may have to experiment with this in minor adjustments until you get the feel of where your particular vehicle's "grove" is. It may be that you can back off more than an inch or it may be less than an inch. When you drive with the pedal full on the floor you are WASTING FUEL, SMOKING UP THE ATMOSPHERE, and DESTROYING your engine. Again refer to DDC OIL. After you have perfected this technique, you can practice on doing this in every gear to learn to feel the acceleration of the engine with out flooring the pedal through out each shift. It is a constant working of the ankle bone and it why there is a distinct difference between a driver and a good driver.

    Another condition where the above applies is when one is starting to climb the mountain, or climb the hill, or just climb any slight grade. On any of these conditions the proper approach is to keep your foot OFF of the FLOOR, Do NOT put the "Pedal to the Metal". The critter is designed to apply the proper amount of fuel to climb the mountain, hill or any grade AUTOMATICLY with the governor.

    GOVERNOR
    The governor (when it is adjusted properly AND the accelerator pedal is NOT full on the floor) is designed to apply the necessary fuel to the injectors to give the engine maximum power it can deliver. When one is traveling up and down hills and the accelerator pedal is NOT on the floor one should be able to FEEL the governor apply power just as the vehicle transforms from coasting down hill to the climb up hill. The Governor Gap (some times referred to as the BUMP) is a very delicate adjustment and I have driven vehicles that it was not adjusted properly. Even so, the governor will still function somewhat unless it is way off when the Gap was set. Imagine running the engine between 1100 and 1300 rpm with the governor top off and making a .002" - .004" adjustment with the engine screaming in you ear with out over speeding the beast. There is an alternate way to accomplish this with the engine not running. But one can see how some may not get the adjustment very accurate.

    Back to driving technique, One should NOT apply much more pressure than it would to keep from cracking an egg (On some vehicles where the accelerator linkage is so stiff and hard to apply, obviously it would require more pressure than an egg would stand, but you get the spirit of the technique). IF the engine slows down and you can not get it to maintain speed by pressing a minor amount of pressure to the accelerator, then one should DOWN SHIFT to a Lower Gear and see if the engine will maintain that speed. You can apply full throttle in the down shift but should back off the pressure to approximately one inch off the floor. This allows the governor to take control of the engine speed and keep it at the top amount it can acquire in the given condition you have put it into. One should test to see occasionally if you can slow down and then speed up. If you can not gain speed and the engine is pulling down further, one needs to downshift again. If you have a tachometer you can observe if your engine has the power to drop 25 rpm and then pick it back up with out struggling. If you can accomplish this you are safe to continue as long as you observe the temperature gauges to ensure that you are not building engine heat or loosing too much oil pressure.

    AUTOMATICS
    There are some differences that will apply depending on if you have a manual transmission or an automatic. Since the automatic has a torque converter you can develop more torque to the wheels at below torque converter lock up speeds.

    You may get away with putting it to the floor and holding it there (which still takes the control away from the governor) until it goes into lock up, then you have the same situation as if it were a manual transmission.

    At the point the lock up takes place, the results will be almost parallel. The condition to watch for is ANY time you are calling for acceleration and the vehicle is actually loosing speed, you should start backing out of the pedal because you are lugging the engine.

    For all of you who do not want to allow anyone to pass you, you should re read that last sentence several times. The slow lane is made for us to use when we can not maintain the faster speeds. After experimenting with the procedures you will find that your engine will run cooler and last longer and you will get there faster going slower than you did when you were trying to go faster and had to slow down to cool the engine off, or call the tow truck.

    Your horse power can be increased by putting in N70 injectors and you can make it up the hills faster, or you can turbo your engine, but to do that you will have to put in new pistons, the non turbo pistons will not work with a turbo, and that requires at a minimum to have an inframe overhaul.

    Driving as described above will allow you to get more performance with out building excessive heat in the engine on those warmer days and in the hills.

    CRUISE CONTROL
    If you have a cruise control, be careful not to use it on any climb, it will put the petal to the metal with out knowing where the temp and oil pressure gauges are. If you must and you notice that it is not able to maintain speed you should take over and manually down shift to a lower gear and see if it will maintain speed.

    DDEC
    According to a person I know who has vast experience in DDEC engines, although they do not have a mechanical governor, the computer accomplishes all the governor did and more. (More Better, so to speak) One could drive the DDEC engine with out having to be so cautious about lugging the engine. A word of caution, IF you are asking a DDEC engine to climb and have the pedal to the floor and it is loosing speed, I still would back out and shift down to a gear that one can maintain a given speed. I would monitor the temp and the oil pressure to confirm that one is not lugging it. As I get more information and have the time, I will post it.

    Posted (11/28/05) rev 1 (11/29/05) rev 2 (12/06/05) rev 3 (12/08/05)

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    FAQ Frequently Asked Questions

    How often should you start your engine?
    How long can a Detroit Diesel Engine be not started and still be safe?
    What is a Run-A-Way Engine


    Long time span since engine was started scenario
    I would tend to want it started at least every other month. I have started engines that had not been started for over 7 years and they still ran great. I have also started some that were not ran for 6 months and they would not start due to one or more seized injectors. The problem that you CAN get by not starting one for a long span of time is that on some occasions one or more injector RACK RODs may seize. What happens in this scenario is that the last time the engine was shut down, the rack position is supposed to return to the FULL throttle position in preparation for the next time you start it. If ONE or more injector rods seize up (due to moisture in the oil or fuel which can allow the fuel rod to form rust which can cause it to seize. The tolerance is very close and water is thinner than the diesel fuel allowing it to penetrate into the cavity that houses the rod). It can seize the fuel rod in the Fuel STOP position OR in the Fuel FULL Position. I have experienced both. The next time the engine is cranked and starts, the seized injector more likely will be in the full UNGOVERNED throttle position. IF you have the NEW style rack with 1 screw with the spring tensioner, that one cylinder will receive full ungoverned fuel, but the rest of the engine will be governed. This will do some damage if allowed to continue without being corrected. But, IF you have the OLD style rack adjustments with 2 screws, then just one seized injector will hold the entire rack system in what ever position it was in when it seized. This would be in most cases the FULL Throttle position. So when it cranks up your engine will start in full throttle with limited ways to kill it. You either have to starve it from AIR or FUEL (Or allow it to have catastrophic internal destruction). If your engine has the old FLAP valve in the air intake horn, (and it still functions) you would engage the EMERGENCY KILL switch or manually reach in to the engine compartment and attempt to hit the LATCH RELEASE mechanism (All the time the engine is running ungoverned (in excess of 3000 rpm) at FULL THROTTLE and screaming in your ear, with any of several possible component parts that could unwind while you are sticking your hand and your upper body into the engine compartment. You could disconnect the fuel line (with a pair of wrenches or break the fitting to the filters by hitting it with a large hammer, or use a pair of bolt cutters) and allow it to die from fuel starvation. You could try to cut off the air supply by covering the 2 openings on both sides of the bus with some plastic or rubber matte thick enough to not allow it to implode and suck into the system. Or if you have a manual Transmission, you could attempt to put it into gear and dump the clutch, but it could just destroy the clutch blowing it up and cause damage to you if it is in a Truck. If it is in a bus it may stay under the floor or not. (At 18 years old I used an old motorcycle jacket made out of leather to shut one down in an 18 wheeler that had run out of fuel and the mechanics got too much either in the system and the engine took off in a run-away condition. They had the air filter off and I put the leather jacket over the intake tube and it stalled down. 5 hours later I was still shaking from the adrenaline rush of excitement. I was neither the driver nor the mechanic at the time, I was just what was called a grease monkey working on heavy road equipment.)

    Blower seals leaking scenario
    Another and more common cause of a Run-A-Way is that the oil seals in the Roots Blower (gear driven super charger) become worn with age and fail allowing the oil that is furnished to lubricate the bearings in the blower to migrate into the air super charged air stream and become ingested into the cylinders. This source of UNGOVERNED oil (FUEL) can become more catastrophic than the seized fuel rod scenario. The extreme case is when the oil flows freely enough into the air charge that the engine starts surging and has noticeably more power on occasions. At a unknown time while the engine is sucking any oil it can find and starts exceeding safe rpm range the already weakened seals can totally fail and then Houston, we really have a problem. What is getting ready to happen is that the engine does not need the diesel to fuel it and starts feeding on the oil and it is NOT governed allowing the engine to exceed the top governed speed and reaches an excess of 3,000 rpm until it either sucks all the oil out of the engine and now we have 2500 pounds of spinning iron suddenly without any lubrication, when it needs it the most, that starts flinging parts any way it can OR some component such as a crank or rod or piston fails and you experience what is called a sudden stoppage. What is left is after it stops can be inclusive of the flywheel and housing, the clutch and even parts of the transmission that are rendered junk iron. This can happen is less than 5 minutes but while it is happening you think it is an eternity. The only way to stop this is to shut off the air source and or attempt to stall the engine if you have a manual transmission

    Some things that are precursors to a run-a-way are:

    Excessive and unneeded use of emergency shut off scenario

    Using the Emergency stop to shut down an engine instead of shutting off the fuel source when you have the option to use the fuel shut off or the governor fuel shutoff lever. This can start the oil seals in the gear driven Roots Blower to begin to fail.

    Excessive idling of engine scenario
    Allowing the engine to idle for any length of time in excess of 8 minutes at a slow idle, this causes the top of the pistons to expand due to a lack of oil cooling the piston crown via the oil spray head on the top of the connecting rod at the wrist pin boss. When the engine has sufficient oil pressure to cause the oil to exit out the top of the rod and spray the underside of the piston crown, it cools it and keeps it from expanding beyond safe dimensions. When it expands too much it is too tight inside the cylinder wall and it scuffs, scrapes and scratches the sides of the pistons and the cylinder liners. This in turn allows blow by into the air box on the upstroke of the piston while the piston is passing the open intake ports in the sides of the liners. This internal blow by come to rest in the lower portion of the air box and is supposed to be drained out the air box vent tubes (slobber tubes). On some occasions the tubes may become obstructed. It is very important that the tubes be allowed to drain, even if it does make a mess on the ground and on your tow vehicle. (there are some safe ways to catch the drip oil and keep it from making a mess but one should be very vigilant in insuring that the tubes are allowed to expel freely. This build up of undrained distillates is a common cause of a run-a-way.

    I have had an engine run-away while driving and have been barely able to use the brakes to brake it down, but it was nip and tuck the whole time. I had crammed it into 4th gear (Manual Transmission) or I would not have been able to overcome the torque in the lower gears. The brakes were so hot they almost would not hold it all the way to a complete stop.
    If you have an automatic transmission, braking will not stop the engine.

    Improper adjustment of the Governor can cause a runaway. Incorrect adjustment of the buffer screw can cause a runaway. On a runaway of this type, IF one had a pair of Bolt Cutters handy they could CUT the fuel line some where away from the moving parts and hot exhaust parts to stop the input of fuel and that COULD assist in stopping the engine IF it was due to a mechanical malfunction in the governor, but would not necessarily stop an runaway that was getting its source of fuel out of the oil pan via the oil seals in the gear driven Roots Blower. If you could cover the outside air inlets with a rubber bath tub matte, or some flexible heavy vinyl or leather, you might be able to stop the engine. At that time the brakes would almost surely be too hot to hold the vehicle and some one would have to be on the brake pedal with all they had and even so the brakes probably would not hold long with all the torque the engine would be producing and you would have to kick it into neutral and walk (run) away from it.

    I have also had a run-away in an old Allis Chalmers HD-5 bulldozer that only had a Detroit Diesel 2 cylinder (2-71). It buried the tracks so deep in the dirt that when I hopped off dozer the top of the tracks were only about 8 inches above the ground. Before I was able to get it stopped I was pushing with all my weight (all 135 lbs) on the foot brakes while at the same time pulling both steering brakes and pushing the blade over 3 ft deep into the earth.


    Miscellaneous scenarios
    Some other causes of a run-a-way are allowing fumes from natural gas, propane, butane, gasoline, naphtha, lacquer thinner, or any other flammable fumes too close to the air intake of the engine.

    Tale Tell Signs of future Run-A-way Problems
    If your engine smokes a lot after idling and seems to have extra power on take off in the first few gears it could be a sign that it is picking up oil out of the blower air box.

    If you accelerate the engine with it in neutral and hear a faint deep clatter while you are accelerating that sounds similar to a fuel knock momentarily, and you think it is still accelerating after you let off, it is probably picking up oil soaked soot that is in the blower air box.

    If your oil consumption is increasing and your temperature is rising while traveling over the same route that in the past did not have these indicators, if the exhaust smoke stings your eyes, loss of power or a noticeably gain of power, these may be early signs of future problems.



    NOTE: COPYRIGHT 2006 Tejas Coach Works
    This information is open for anyone to read, but is not intended to be copied.
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    I HATE THIS THING!!!!! OIL LEAKS ALL OVER, ONE GREASY MESS TO WORK ON. WHAT IS THAT PTO UNIT AT THE VERY BACK? RUNS OFF THE ENGINE AND DRIVES THE BELTS. IT'S LEAKING A BIG PUDDLE ON THE FLOOR JUST SITTING. I GUESS I WILL HAVE TO PULL IT AND PUT NEW SEALS IN IT TOO. THANKS[JIMMY]


    First That "PTO THING"
    What you are referring to is a Morris Gear box, commonly referred to as the miter box. First check and see if it is too full. Usually all you need is about 3/8 to 1/2 inch showing on the tip stick. which would be just below the level that would not allow it to leak out the lower edge any of the shafts when the bus is sitting level. If the correct dip stick is installed, it will have a mark on it. Over the years people either loose or break the original dip stick and sometimes fabricate their own. I always use 80 or 90 wt gear lube. Some folks use motor oil but motor oil does not have the same chemicals that gear oils do. I do not feel that the motor oil is adequate to take the stress that is put on the box. If you smell a non synthetic gear oil you will notice a distinct odor of sulfur which gives it the slick for gears to slide past each other with minimum wear. You can put in some additives such as Lucas or Slick 50 or any other brand of slick stuff to enhance the boxes life span. The seal that is used depends if it has a speedy sleeve installed over the wear marks on the shafts.


    OIL LEAKS ALL OVER, ONE GREASY MESS TO WORK ON.
    The engine is a 2 cycle and it has a gear driven supercharger) named a Roots Blower which was commonly used on dragsters in the 50's and 60's and still even today.
    In the center of the block under the blower is a cavity called the Air Box. It is where the air is inducted into the side ports of the cylinders and at least two conditions can cause fluids (oil , distillates, condensates) to accumulate in the air box. A seal leak internally on the roots blower will allow oil to migrate to the air box and the distillates will accumulate from the running of the engine and the humidly of the outside air. In the normal operating cycle of the engine it compresses air in the air box and as the piston top drops below the ports air is forced into the cylinder as it continues to down stroke, as it starts in the up stroke the 4 exhaust valves in that cylinder open to allow the burned gases to exhaust until the top of the piston arrives at the port. At that time the compression cycle is started and so on. It is in that moment of the piston being in the below the port that any blow by from the rings and any left over exhaust have moisture residue that could migrate to the air box.
    All of that to say this, on each side of the engine below the head is a tube commonly referred to as the "slobber tube". It is actually named the "air box breather tube" They will be located just above the top of the oil pan and towards the front of the bus (which in this case is the back of the engine because it is set in the bus backwards). They normally have some flexible hose attached to them and they almost drag the ground to attempt to force the drips onto the ground as opposed to allowing it to blow all over the engine. I normally put a catch can (a used 1 gal Delo jug) on them to catch the drips, If you do this I hang it upside down so the cap is on the bottom so I can drain it by removing the cap when it needs draining. CAUTION: These tubes MUST drain or you will accumulate a large amount of fluids in the air box and you can have a RUN A WAY where the engine will ingest the un metered fluids directly into the ports.
    Extended periods of low idling is the biggest culprit of generating the distillates. The compression on a cold engine allows blow by. Pre warming the engine with the block heater helps avoid this condition somewhat. After crank up on an older engine one will see blue or gray smoke for a short period of time driving on the road until the engine attains 185 degrees. Prior to this time the piston is smaller at the top than it is at the bottom. At 186 degrees, the piston is the same size at the top and the bottom, this condition is altered by the crown of the piston which gets all the heat from the burning of the fuel. Under the piston crown is a spray head on top of the wrist pin boss of the connecting rod. the connecting rod has an oil hole up the rod to the wrist pin where the oil is under pressure to lubricate the pin continually and then it is sprayed out through the spray head to cool the under side of the piston crown. IF the wrist pin end plugs were improperly installed at overhaul the plugs will leak oil and it will go into the air box. Also, if you let the engine idle on low idle, it will not have enough pressure to force the oil out the spray heads and cool the piston crown, thus allowing the top of the piston to expand to a point greater that the bottom of the piston and this condition will gall and scrub the cylinder walls and the sides of the pistons. This overheating condition WILL NOT SHOW UP on the engine temperature gauge.
    There are more than one stories about bus engines and the fact that they leak. The biggest factor is the 2 cycle Detroit engine that powers the majority of all buses that were manufactured prior to 1990. It is a very enduring engine.
    One of the stories is as follows: A diesel mechanic's wife divorced him because he insisted on being allowed to hang a Photo of a Detroit engine on the wall in the living room at home. The problem was that oil dripping from the Detroit engine in the photo kept staining her carpet.
    The other story goes as follows: Mechanic #1Question: If I take a 2500 pound chunk of metal and paint it green, will it leak oil? Mechanic #2 Answer: Absolutely!!
    It is not impossible to clean one up, but one must be meticulous and go the extra mile in doing so. My suggestion would be to accomplish it while doing an out of frame overhaul. During an overhaul the wonder gasket sealant silicone can some times cause the gasket to slip out from between the two pieces of metal. Thin applications that are applied and allowed to cure over night or under a warm lamp and insure that the metal surfaces are totally free of oil and antifreeze should be ok, but fresh silicone that is not allowed to cure and torqued down should be avoided. Any excess can eventually dislodge and enter into the fluid cavity (oil, water or fuel) and cause several problems.


    How do I remove the windshield wiper motor

    Hints for servicing Windshield Wiper Motors

    Soak all fasteners with a good penetrating oil, or even WD-40, if you have neither use water to penetrate it to assist it removing the threaded parts, if you use water, be sure you oil the threads soon after you have removed the parts to keep them from rusting.
    If the threaded parts have any paint on the threads, make all attempts to clean it off prior to trying to screw the fasteners off. Small wire brushes will work and sometimes a small flame being careful not to scorch your paint job To remove it you will need to take off the outside arms. On the original installation there should be an acorn nut that attaches to the end of both shafts. Over the years some of the acorn nuts MAY have been replaced with all kinds of fastening devices other than the acorn nuts, some times there are regular hex nuts, either stainless or brass, or just black (rustable) iron, or if the shaft's threads have been stripped I have seen holes drilled for a cotter key with a flat washer behind it or bailing wire or ????? even small vice grip pliers. After removing the outer fastener devices ?? on the drive arm (large arm with the spring tension) there should be an Allen socket head screw which is used to clamp the arm to the shaft.
    After removing the arms, behind them will be a fastening nut on each arm, one will be a large size hex nut that if you do not have the correct size end wrench to fit, a good crescent wrench should work, or a deep socket. The driven arm shaft should have a spanner nut, which should be removed with a spanner wrench, but I never had one so I found it can be removed with a small punch and a light tap with a hammer to start it off the threads, or a pair of slip joint pliers (channel lock) or a pair of vice grip pliers or a small pipe wrench or as a very LAST resort, a cutting torch.
    One could fashion a spanner wrench if one wants to.
    I have new spanner nuts and the hex nuts available.
    Last is there should be two screws, nuts or bolts that are outside 5 inches directly below the drive arm (larger arm) and 8 inches apart. On GM Coaches these usually are painted common steel fasteners that can rust. On some coaches these could be stainless steel Phillips head screws or stainless bolts. One could replace them with either stainless Phillips head screws or stainless bolts. Some times you have to use what you have or can find.
    On the idler arm shaft it is not uncommon to see them worn almost to the point of breaking. There is an adapter that you can get to repair it. The procedure is to cut or grind off the shaft just outbound of the threads, and the new part attaches to the threads replacing the original old hex nut. You now have a fresh (also replaceable) shaft that also replaces the hex nut. It has new threads on the end where your old shaft may have been mutilated over the years.


    NOTE: COPYRIGHT 2006 Tejas Coach Works
    This information is open for anyone to read, but is not intended to be copied.
    Instead, please feel free to invite others to view it
    here at tejascoach.com.
                             Thanks




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    eagle bus. coach. rv. buses. entertainer coaches. recreation vehicles. bus conversions. bus for sale. motor coach. motorcoach. buses for sale. entertainer coach. recreation vehicle. custom coach. eagle bus. bus shells. motor home conversionsTejas Coach Works      
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